## What Is WORKDAY Function In Excel?

The

WORKDAY Excel functionhelps users calculate the required date, keeping into account the number of working days before or after a given date, excluding the weekends and specified holidays. We can calculate invoice due dates and expected order delivery dates.

The **WORKDAY Function In Excel** is an inbuilt **Date & Time **function, which means we can insert the formula from the “**Function Library**” or enter it directly in the worksheet.

For example, the table below contains a set of dates and the number of days.

Select cell **D2**, enter the formula **=WORKDAY(A2,B2), **and press the “**Enter**” key. Then, drag the formula from cell **D2** to **D6.**

In cell **D5**, edit the formula and insert excel cell reference **C5** as the 3^{rd} argument, i.e., ** holidays**. So, the formula in

**D5**will then be updated to

**=WORKDAY(A5,B5,C5).**

The output is shown above. Column E is for our reference that displays the formulas used in column D. The function excludes weekends (Saturdays and Sundays) while calculating the required dates.

However, row 5 highlights a holiday in cell **C5**, **4/7/2022**. So, the **WORKDAY Excel function calculation **in the target cell **D5** excludes the holiday with the weekends falling in the **15**-day duration to return the date, **25/7/2022**.

**[Note:** Set the output column’s format to **Date**. If it is **General**, we will get an incorrect output format.]

##### Table of contents

###### Key Takeaways

- The
**WORKDAY Excel function**calculates a date, the number of working days before or after a given date. - Ensure the data format of the target cell is
**Date**. Otherwise, you will see the function output as a serial number equivalent to the resulting date value. - We can use the
**WORKDAY function with**other Excel functions, such as**IF**,**TIME**, and**MOD**. - The function does not count the
as a working day. The*start_date***WORKDAY Excel function**returns a future date if this argument value is positive. And for a negative value of**days**, it returns a past date.

### WORKDAY() Excel Formula

The syntax of the **WORKDAY Excel formula **is:

The arguments of the **WORKDAY Excel formula **are:

: A date representing the starting date. It is a mandatory argument.*start_date*: The number of workdays, excluding weekends and specified holidays, before or after the*days*. It is a mandatory argument.*start_date*: A list of one or more holidays you require to exclude in the calculation. It can be an array of dates or an array constant of the serial numbers representing the dates. It is an optional argument.*holidays*

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### How To Use WORKDAY Excel Function?

We can use the **WORKDAY Excel function **in 2 methods, namely,

**Access from the Excel ribbon.****Enter in the worksheet manually.**

#### Method #1 – Access from the Excel ribbon

First, choose a cell for output → select the “**Formulas**” tab → go to the “**Function Library**” group → click the “**Date & Time**” drop-down → select the “**WORKDAY**” function, as shown below.

The “**Function Arguments**” window appears. Enter the ** Start_date**,

**, and the**

*Days***arguments as values or cell references. Then, click “**

*Holidays***OK**”, as shown below.

#### Method #2 – Enter in the worksheet manually

First, ensure all the date values in the source data are in the **Date** format.

- Select the target cell for the output.
- Type
**=WORKDAY(**in the cell. [Alternatively, type =W and double-click the**WORKDAY**function from the Excel suggestions.] - Enter the values for the arguments.
- Click “
**OK**”. - Finally, press the “
**Enter**” key.

We will understand the **WORKDAY Excel function with a basic example** for different datasets.

The below table shows two data sets, with all the column’s data format set to **Date.**

The steps to apply the **WORKDAY Excel function **are:

**First, select cell B8, enter the formula =WORKDAY(B2,B3,B4:B5), and press the “Enter” key.**

[Alternatively, select cell**B8**and click**Formulas**→**Date & Time**→**WORKDAY**.

Enter the three argument values in the**Function Arguments**window.

And once you click**OK**, the function in the target cell**B8**will get executed to give the result.]**Select cell C8, enter the formula =WORKDAY(C2,C3,C4:C6), and press the “Enter” key.**

We get the output as shown above.

[**Output observation:**The above formulas using the**WORKDAY Excel function exclude weekends and holidays**you specify in each dataset. And suppose a holiday falls on a weekend, then the function considers it a weekend, and the date is excluded while performing the calculations.

For instance, the holiday on 19/6/2022 falls on a Sunday. So, for Data Set 1, the WORKDAY() considers it a weekend date to return the date 30 days before 1/8/2022. And it ignores only one holiday date,**4/7/2022**, along with the weekends.]

### Examples

We will understand advanced scenarios **using** **WORKDAY Excel function**.

#### Example #1

We will generate a sequence of working days **using** **WORKDAY Excel function** to determine the next six working days and display the corresponding day names.

The following table contains the first workday date in the **Date** format in Excel and the corresponding day name.

**Step 1:**Select cell**B2**, enter the formula**=A2**, and press the “**Enter**” key. The output is shown below.

**Step 2:**To format cell**B2**to display the corresponding day’s name, select the “**Home**” tab → go to the “**Number**” group → click the “**Number Format**” drop-down → select the “**More Number Formats…**” option, as shown below.

**Step 3:**In the “**Format Cells**” window that pops up, select the “**Number**” tab → click the “**Custom**” option on the left, in the “**Category:**” group → in the “**Type:”**group on the right, select the “**dddd**” option to display the date as a day àclick “**OK**”, as shown below.

We have now linked cell **B2** with **A2** and changed the date format of cell **B2** to display the day’s name.

**Step 4:**Now, select cell**A3**, enter the formula**=WORKDAY(A2,1),**and press the “**Enter**” key. The output is shown below.

**Step 5:**Drag the formula from cell**A3**to**A8**using the fill handle.

**Step 6:**Drag the formula and formatting from cell**B2**to**B8**using the fill handle.

The output is shown above. We can select both the cells, **A2** and **B2**, and drag the formulas and the formatting simultaneously.

[**Output Observation:** In the above example, the source data does not highlight any holidays. So, we ignore the argument **holidays** in the **WORKDAY **functions used in the target cells **A3:A8**. And the **day’s** argument is **1** in all the formulas, as we need consecutive working days.

Now the output shows the workdays are consecutive, from **5/12/2022** to **9/12/2022**. And, as the dates **10/12/2022** and **11/12/2022** fall on the weekend, **WORKDAY()** excludes them. So, instead, it returns the next two weekdays as the working days, **12/12/2022** and **13/12/2022**, to complete the sequence.]

#### Example #2

We will use the **WORKDAY **and **IF() excel **function to determine whether a day is a workday or holiday.

The below table contains a list of dates and the holiday list.

The steps to apply the **WORKDAY Excel function **in the **IF() **function are as follows:

**Step 1:**Select cell**B2**, enter the formulaand press the “*=IF(WORKDAY(A2-1,1,$E$3)=A2,”Working Day”,”Holiday”),***Enter**” key.

**Step 2:**Drag the formula from cell**B2**to**B6**using the fill handle.

We get the output as shown above.

[Output Observation: Let us see how the above formula work in cell **B6**. First, in **WORKDAY()**, **one **gets deducted from **25/11/2022**. Thus the **WORKDAY()** accepts **24/11/2022** as the input date**. **Then, considering the **Holidays List**, the function returns the next working date, **25/11/2022**. And since the** IF** condition holds, the **IF() **returns **Working Day** as the output.

In the case of the target cell **B5**, one gets deducted from **24/11/2022** in the **WORKDAY()**. So, the **WORKDAY()** considers **23/11/2022** as **start_date** and checks the **Holidays List** to return the next working day as **25/11/2022**. The reason is that **WORKDAY() **ignores the holiday, **24/11/2022**. And as the **IF** condition is **FALSE**, the function output is **Holiday**.]

#### Example #3

We will use the **WORKDAY Excel function** with **IF**, **TIME**, **HOUR**, **MINUTE**, **SECOND**, and **MOD** functions.

The table below includes a starting date and time, the number of working hours you have to add, workings hours start and end time, and the holidays you must exclude.

The steps to apply the **WORKDAY Excel function with hours** included in the output are:

Choose cell**Step**1:**C3**→ select the “**Home**” tab → go to the “**Number**” group → click the “**Number Format**” drop-down à select the “**More Number Formats…**” option, as shown below.

**Step 2:**In the “**Format Cells**” window that pops up, select the “**Number**” tab → click the “**Custom**” option on the left, in the “**Category:**” group → in the “**Type:”**group on the right, select the “**m/d/yyyy h:mm**” option → click “**OK**”, as shown below.

**Step 3:**Select cell**C3**, enter the formula

** =WORKDAY(A3,INT(B3/9)+IF(TIME(HOUR(A3),MINUTE(A3),SECOND(A3))+TIME(MOD (B3,9),MOD(MOD(B3,9),1)*60,0)>$F$3,1,0),$G$3:$G$3)+IF(TIME(HOUR(A3),MINUTE(A 3),SECOND(A3))+TIME(MOD(B3,9),MOD(MOD(B3,9),1)*60,0)>$F$3,$E$3+TIME(HOUR( A3),MINUTE(A3),SECOND(A3))+TIME(MOD(B3,9),MOD(MOD(B3,9),1)*60,0)-$F$3,TIME (HOUR(A3),MINUTE(A3),SECOND(A3))+TIME(MOD(B3,9),MOD(MOD(B3,9),1)*60,0)), **and press the “

**Enter**” key.

We get the output as shown above.

[**Output Observation:** In the above example, the start date is **1/7/2022**, a **Friday**. So, considering the holiday, **4/7/2022**, the **WORKDAY() **ignores the weekend and the specified holiday to return to the next working date or end date, **5/7/2022**. On the other hand, the remaining formula adds the required business hours to the start time and determines the end time.]

### Important Things to Note

- The
**WORKDAY Excel function**excludes the weekends and holidays you specify while calculating the working date. Also, it does not count the**start_date**as a work day. - Avoid entering the dates as text values. Instead, use the
**DATE()**to enter them into the source data cells. And if you enter a non-integer value for the argument**days**, it will get shortened. - For invalid
or*start_date*arguments or a non-numeric*holidays***days**argument, the**WORKDAY()**will return the**#VALUE!**error. - Suppose the
**WORKDAY()**determines an invalid date, we will get the**#NUM!**error.

### Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

**1. Where is WORKDAY in Excel?**

**WORKDAY** in Excel is in the **Formulas** tab. Click **Formulas** → **Date & Time **→ **WORKDAY**.

**2. Does the Excel WORKDAY function include holidays?**

The Excel **WORKDAY** function includes the holidays while determining the work day if you do not specify the holidays list explicitly.

The **WORKDAY() **argument,** holidays**, is optional. And if you provide the cell range containing holidays to the function as an argument, the function excludes them from the workday calculations. Otherwise, it includes holidays in the evaluations.

**3. Why does the WORKDAY Excel function not work?**

The **WORKDAY Excel function** does not work due to the following reasons:**· **If the argument ** start_date **or

**is invalid.**

*holidays***·**When the argument,

**days**, is non-numeric.

**·**The

**WORKDAY()**determined date is invalid.

**4. How to use the WORKDAY() in Excel VBA?**

We can use **the WORKDAY()** in Excel with **VBA** to determine the corresponding work days.

In the following table, we have a list of dates, the number of days, and the holidays to exclude from the working day calculations.

The steps to use the **WORKDAY()** in **VBA** are:**1: **With the worksheet with the above table, press the keys **Alt**+**F11** to open the VBA Editor.**2: **Then, choose the required **VBAProject** from the left menu and click **Insert** → **Module **to open the **Module1** window, where you need to enter the VBA code.

The Module window opens as shown below.**3: **Enter the **VBA code**, shown in the image below, in the **Module1** window.**Sub Workday_fn()**

Dim wd As Worksheet

Set wd = Worksheets(“FAQ 4”)

wd.Range(“D2”) = Application.WorksheetFunction.WorkDay(wd.Range(“A2”), wd.Range(“B3”), wd.Range(“C2”))

wd.Range(“D3”) = Application.WorksheetFunction.WorkDay(wd.Range(“A3”), wd.Range(“B3”), wd.Range(“C3”))

wd.Range(“D4”) = Application.WorksheetFunction.WorkDay(wd.Range(“A4”), wd.Range(“B4”))

wd.Range(“D5”) = Application.WorksheetFunction.WorkDay(wd.Range(“A5”), wd.Range(“B5”), wd.Range(“C5”))**End Sub****4: **Click the **Run Sub/UserForm** icon in the menu to run the commands.

In the worksheet, we will get the output in the target cells as shown below:

[**Output Observation:** In the target cells, the **WORKDAY() **excludes the weekends and the specified holidays while returning the respective future work days as the output.

But in the case of row 4, you need a past work day from**1/3/2022**. And **21/2/2022** is a holiday that falls in the given number of days range. But as per the requirement, the **WORKDAY()** ignores the optional argument **holidays**. Thus, the function counts ten working days in the past from **1/3/2022**, excluding only the weekends to return the work day **15/2/2022**.]

### Download Template

This article must help understand the **WORKDAY Excel function**, with its formula and examples. You can download the template here to use it instantly.

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