**What are Excel VBA Functions?**

A VBA function is used to perform a task and return the result. We can create a user-defined function using the VBA function, which will be used in Excel like any other Excel function. It allows the users to write code in a compact block, name it, and return a value.

Let us see a simple example of a user-defined function. Here, we gave the function a name and used it to multiply two numbers passed as arguments. Open VBA, click the Insert tab to open a new module, and write the code below. Go to the active Excel worksheet and use the = operator to call the function “Multiplication” to multiply the integers and return the result.

**Code**:

**Function Multiplication(X, y)Multiplication = X * yEnd Function**

##### Table of contents

###### Key Takeaways

- VBA functions are in-built in Excel, or we can create a function using VBA, which will return the value as a result.
- The function is typically declared as follows:

**Function Function_name(parameter-list)statement 1statement 2…… statement nEnd Function**

- Once the function is created, we can apply the function in our active worksheet.
- Besides user-defined functions, VBA has multiple categories of in-built functions, which include Math/Trig, String/Text, and Conversions.

### What do VBA Functions do?

- VBA functions take a series of arguments, perform a task, and return a value after the function is executed.
- VBA functions allow the user to customize and place a function on the right side of an expression, like intrinsic functions such as SQR.

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### How to Create Custom Functions using VBA?

Let us understand this by taking an example to find the total marks, results, and Grade scored by some students. The total marks can be obtained in Excel using the in-built SUM function. First, however, the Result and Grade functions need to be written. Look for the below steps to see how it’s done:

**Step 1:** Open an Excel worksheet and write the data as shown below:

**Step 2:** Use the Excel inbuilt Function “SUM” to calculate the total marks. Use =SUM(B2:F2) in cell G2 and press Enter for this. Once you get the total marks, drag the formula down to the remaining cells up to G11.

**Step 3:** Now, let us assume the following criteria given by the school for the result:

- For Pass: If a student scores 200 or more total marks out of 500.
- For Fail: If the total score is less than 200.
- For Exam repeat: Suppose a student scores total marks >200 but is failed in two or more subjects.

Thus, to create a Function named “ResultOfStudent” in VBA, follow the further steps.

**Step 4:** Click the Developer option and select Visual Basic Application (VBA). Here, click Insert and open a new Module.

If the Developer option is missing in your Excel, then follow the below steps to activate the Developer tool in your Excel.

Open the Excel sheet and click on the Excel Ribbon anywhere. Next, select the “**Customize the Ribbon” **option.

In the “**Customize the Ribbon**” option dialog box, check the “**Developer”** option.

To open the VBA options, go to the “**Developer**” tab and click the “**Visual Basic**” option.

After clicking the “Visual Basic” option, a “**Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications**” window will open. Next, click “**Insert**” and select “**Module.”** Finally, you are ready to type your VBA code into the VBA editor.

Now let’s get back to our steps for creating a function.

**Step 5**: Write the VBA code with a sub-procedure in the VBA editor. Assign the name “ResultOfStudents” to the function and define it as a String datatype, as it should return a result as a string.

Further, define variables mycell as Range, Total as Integer, and CountOfFailedSubjects as Integer.

**Step 6:** Write the code below to check the marks range for every cell. Further, the code adds the value of each cell in the ‘**Total’** variable. Write the following condition:

If the cell’s value is <35, a count of one is added to the CountOfFailedSubject variable.

**Step 7:** The below code checks the value of Total, CountOfFailedSubjects, Exam Repeat, Passed or Failed within the function, ResultOfStudents.

**Code:**

**Function ResultOfStudents(Marks As Range) As StringDim mycell As RangeDim Total As IntegerDim CountOfFailedSubject As IntegerFor Each mycell In MarksTotal = Total + mycell.ValueIf mycell.Value < 35 Then CountOfFailedSubject = CountOfFailedSubject + 1 End If Next mycell If Total <= 200 And CountOfFailedSubject >= 2 ThenResultOfStudents = “Failed “ElseIf Total >= 200 And CountOfFailedSubject = 0 ThenResultOfStudents = “Passed”ElseResultOfStudents = “Repeat Exam”End IfEnd Function**

**Step 8:** We will apply this function in our active Excel worksheet.

**Step 9**: Enter the created function and drag the result to the rest of the cells.

As observed, based on our code and conditions provided, the result of all the students are obtained.

To find these students’ grades, we create a Function, “GradeForStudent.”

**Step 10:** Before writing a code, we must see the condition for the Grades. Please refer Table.1 for the same.

**Table.1: Condition to obtain Grades for students.**

Total Marks | Result | Grade |
---|---|---|

400-450 | Passed | A |

350-400 | Passed | B |

300-350 | Passed | C |

250-300 | Passed | D |

200-250 | Passed | E |

<200 | Failed | Failed |

**Step.11**: Write the below code and run it.

**Code:**

**Function GradeForStudent(TotalMarks As Integer, Result As String) As StringIf TotalMarks > 450 And TotalMarks <= 500 And (Result = “Passed” Or Result = “Repeat Exam”) Then **

**GradeForStudent = “A+” ElseIf **

**TotalMarks > 400 And TotalMarks <= 450 And (Result = “Passed” Or Result = “Repeat Exam”) Then **

**GradeForStudent = “A” ElseIf **

**TotalMarks > 350 And TotalMarks <= 400 And (Result = “Passed” Or Result = “Repeat Exam”) Then **

**GradeForStudent = “B” ElseIf **

**TotalMarks > 300 And TotalMarks <= 350 And (Result = “Passed” Or Result = “Repeat Exam”) Then **

**GradeForStudent = “C” ElseIf TotalMarks > 250 And TotalMarks <= 300 And (Result = “Passed” Or Result = “Repeat Exam”) Then**

**GradeForStudent = “D” ElseIf TotalMarks > 200 And TotalMarks <= 250 And (Result = “Passed” Or Result = “Repeat Exam”) Then**

**GradeForStudent = “E” ElseIf **

**TotalMarks < 200 Or Result = “Failed” ThenGradeForStudent = “F”End IfEnd Function**

As observed, the total marks and results are checked, and the grades are printed accordingly.

**Step 12:** We will apply the generated function “GradeOfStudent” in our worksheet.

**Step 13:** Press Enter and drag the formula to the rest of the cells.

### Examples

#### Example #1

We will create a VBA Function named “AddThree” in this example.” Here, we can add any three desired numbers from the list of multiple numbers.

**Step 1**: Open a module in the VBA editor and write the below code:

**Step 2:** Apply the function “AddThree” in the Excel sheet.

**Step 3**: Press enter, and we can see the addition of three numbers, as shown in the image below.

**Code:**

**Function AddThree(X, Y, Z As Integer) As IntegerAddThree = X + Y + ZEnd Function**

#### Example #2

Create a VolumeOfCuboid function to calculate a cuboid’s length, breadth, and height.

**Step 1:** Write the below code in a module in the VBA Editor under the Developer tab.

**Step 2:** Apply the ” VolumeOfCuboid ” function in the Excel sheet below.

**Step 3**: Enter and see the result as shown below. Drag the function to the next cell as well.

**Code:**

**Function VolumeOfCuboid(X, Y, Z As Integer) As IntegerVolumeOfCuboid = X * Y * ZEnd Function**

#### Example #3

To write a GetNumeric function for extracting numbers from a text. Suppose we have a range of cell values and want to extract only a number from it. The manual process will be very tedious and time-consuming. However, we can perform that work in just one click by creating a VBA function, “GetNumeric.”

**Step 1:** Write the below code in the VBA Editor’s module:

**Explanation:**

**Function GetNumeric(CellRef As String) As Long**

This line starts with “Function” followed by the function name “GetNumeric.” Then, the “CellRef” will extract the numeric part from the Long.

**Dim StringLength As IntegerDeclares the variable as Integer.StringLength = Len(CellRef)Assigns the length to the string.For X = 1 To StringLengthIf IsNumeric(Mid(CellRef, X, 1)) Then Result = Result & Mid(CellRef, X, 1)Next XGetNumeric = ResultEnd Function**

IF statement checks each character of the string; if it is numeric, it adds that numeric character to the Result variable*.*

**Step 2:** Apply the function to the Excel sheet in cell B1.

**Step.3**: Enter and see the result below.

In the above result, we can see that only the numbers are extracted from the cells.

**Note: **For all the examples to work without the #NAME Error, an Excel error, we must open an Excel sheet and a VBA module under the Developer tab. Paste the code provided, run the code, and then apply the function in the Excel sheet. The created function will show you the desired result.

**Code**:

**Function GetNumeric(CellRef As String) As LongDim StringLength As IntegerDeclares the variable as Integer.StringLength = Len(CellRef)Assigns the length to the string.For X = 1 To StringLengthIf IsNumeric(Mid(CellRef, X, 1)) Then Result = Result & Mid(CellRef, X, 1)Next XGetNumeric = ResultEnd Function**

### Important Things to Note

- VBA has multiple in-built functions to perform different tasks. However, useful VBA functions can also be created by the user (user-defined function) in Excel.
- We should define the function by assigning it a name to create basic VBA functions.
- To define a function, we must select a particular data type in VBA which is the data type of the returned result.
- VBA String Functions are very essential as it repeats a character multiple times and returns the exact string.
- A list of VBA functions with Strings includes:
- LEN Function
- LEFT Function
- RIGHT Function in VBA
- MID Function
- TRIM Function

### Frequently Asked Questions (**FAQs)**

**1. What are string functions in VBA?**

String VBA functions are in-built functions that form a new string by data manipulation. The output of this function returns the same string as the result. VBA String functions are either VBA string or Text.

**2. What are end functions in VBA?**

The end function in VBA is used to End the code execution. The execution of the code immediately ends, and the control leaves the program.

**3. Is VBA macro a function?**

No. A function considers the evaluated data, performs a task, and returns a result. In contrast, a macro assumes some unevaluated syntax and works on that.

**4. What is Boolean function in VBA?**

The Boolean function is an in-built function in VBA. It declares variables as True or False. Therefore, it comes under logical functions.

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