## What Is MMULT Function In Excel?

The

MMULTfunction in Excel is an inbuiltMath & Trigfunction that calculates the matrix product of the two supplied arrays. The function output will be an array with the number of rows and columns as same as array1 and array2, respectively. Users can utilize the functionMMULTin Excel when they have to multiply parameters given in matrix form and require the product in the matrix form.

For example, the below image shows two 2×2 arrays, **Array 1** and **Array 2**.

And suppose the requirement is to multiply the two given matrices and display the resulting product in the cell range A11:B12, then **using MMULT in Excel** in the cell range A11:B12, we can get the required data.

In the above **MMULT in Excel example**, as the number of rows in the first array is two and the number of columns in the second array is 2, their product is a 2×2 array.

##### Table of contents

###### Key Takeaways

- The function
**MMULT**in Excel multiplies the two given arrays. - The
**MMULT()**accepts two mandatory arguments,**array1**and**array2**, as inputs. - In case of Office 365, we can enter the
**MMULT()**in the top-left cell of the target cell range and press**Enter**to apply the formula as a dynamic array formula. However, when using the previous Excel versions, we can select the required cell range and enter the**MMULT()**. - But while executing the function, press the
**Ctrl**+**Shift**+**Enter**keys to apply it as an array formula.

### MMULT() Excel Formula

The syntax of **MMULT Formula **in Excel is:

where,

**array1**: The first matrix values.**array2**: The second matrix values.

The two arguments in the **MMULT Formula **in Excel are mandatory.

**Please Note: **If you use the Office 365 version, you can enter the **MMULT()** formula in the top-left cell of the output cell range. And then, you can press **Enter** to execute the formula as a dynamic array formula.

However, if we use Excel 2019 or previous versions, we can select the target cell range and enter the **MMULT()** formula. And then, we should execute it as an array Excel formula using the **Ctrl** + **Shift** + **Enter** keys.

Further, if the function **MMULT in Excel returns error**, we can check the below points to identify the root cause.

- The two given arrays should have only numbers.
- The number of columns in
**array1**and rows in**array2**should be the same. - We can supply
**array1**and**array2**as cell ranges, Excel cell references, or array constants. - The function
**MMULT in Excel returns error #VALUE!**when:- The given arrays contain empty cells, or the cell values are texts.
- The number of columns in
**array1**and rows in**array2**is different**.**

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### How to Use MMULT Excel Function?

The steps to use the function **MMULT **in Excel are as follows:

- First, ensure the two supplied matrices contain only numbers. Also, confirm that the number of columns in
**array1**and the number of rows in**array2**are the same. - Then, select the target cell range, where we need to display the matrix product of the two given arrays and enter the function
**MMULT()**. - Finally, press the keys
**Ctrl**+**Shift**+**Enter**to execute the function**MMULT**in Excel as an array formula.

Here is an example that explains the **MMULT in Excel definition** and the above steps to apply the function properly.

The following image shows two 3×3 arrays, **Array 1** and **Array 2**.

Suppose we need to find the matrix product of the two arrays and display the result in the cell range B11:D13. Then **using MMULT in Excel** function in the cell range B11:D13 is a straightforward way to achieve the desired data.

**To begin with, select the target cell range B11:D13 and enter the MMULT() formula.****=MMULT(B6:D8,F6:H8)****Next, press the Ctrl + Shift + Enter keys to apply the MMULT() in the target cell range as an array formula.****{=MMULT(B6:D8,F6:H8)}**

We can also supply the numbers in the two arrays directly as the**MMULT()**arguments to get the above-resulting matrix.**=MMULT({1,2,3;4,5,6;7,8,9},{10,100,1000;100,1000,10;1000,10,100})**

We can then press the**Ctrl**+**Shift**+**Enter**keys to apply the**MMULT()**in the target cell range as an array formula to get the required product value.

Alternatively, we can apply the**MMULT()**using the option available in the**Formulas**tab. And for that, we need to select the required target cell range, B11:D13, and click**Formulas**→**Math & Trig**→**MMULT**to open the**Function Arguments**window.

Next, enter the two given array ranges as**Array1**and**Array2**field values in the**Function Arguments**window.

Finally, press the**Ctrl**+**Shift**+**Enter**keys instead of clicking**OK**in the**Function Arguments**window to apply the**MMULT()**as an array formula.

Let us see how the**MMULT()**works in the target cell B11. The formula in cell B11 will be:**=1*10 + 2*100 + 3*1000****= 10 + 200 + 3000****=3210**

### Examples

Check out the following examples to understand the **MMULT in Excel definition** more effectively.

#### Example #1

The mathematical representation of the matrix product array **c** of two given arrays, **a**,and **b**, is:

where,

**a**and**b**: The two given arrays (matrices).**c**: The resulting matrix product of the two given arrays.**i**: The row number.**j**: The column number.

Let us take two 2×2 matrices and solve the above equation to find their product. The outcome will be the same as when applying the function **MMULT **in Excel with the two 2×2 matrices supplied as the Function Arguments.

The below image shows two arrays, **a** and **b**.

If we have to find the product of the two given arrays, the result will also be an array, like, **c**.

Then, we can perform the required mathematical evaluation using the equation provided above or apply the function **MMULT **in Excel in the target cell range.

**Step 1: **Select the target cell C11, enter the below formula, and press **Enter**.

**=C4*F4+D4*F5**

Here, the value of the variables **i **and **j **is one, and the variable **k **is **two, **as the resulting array is a 2×2 matrix. So, the cell C11 value is **c _{11}**, and the equation in cell C11 becomes:

**c _{11} = a_{11} * b_{11} + a_{12} * b_{21}**

** = 4*11 + 8*12**

** = 44 + 96**

** = 140**

Likewise, enter the respective equations in cells D11, C12, and D12.

The mathematical equation in cell D11:

**c _{12} = a_{11} * b_{12} + a_{12} * b_{22}**

The mathematical equation in cell C12:

**c _{21} = a_{21} * b_{11} + a_{22} * b_{21}**

The mathematical equation in cell D12:

**c _{22} = a_{21} * b_{12} + a_{22} * b_{22}**

**Step 2: **Select the target cell range F11:G12 and enter the **MMULT()**.

**=MMULT(C4:D5,F4:G5)**

Next, press the keys **Ctrl** + **Shift** + **Enter** to execute the function as an array formula.

**{=MMULT(C4:D5,F4:G5)}**

Thus, now we know how the **MMULT()** calculates the product values.

#### Example #2

In this **MMULT in Excel example**, we shall see how to apply the function in a real-world scenario.

The following image shows two arrays. The first matrix contains the sports balls’ quantity data for January and February. And the second matrix contains the weight and price data for the specified sports balls.

Suppose the requirement is to determine the total weight and price for the required quantities of the sports balls in January and February and display the output in the cell range B9:C10.

While the first array is a 2×3 matrix (B3:D4), the second array is a 3×2 matrix (G3:H5). So, as the number of columns in the first array is the same as the number of rows in the second array, we can find the product of the two given arrays to get the required output. And since the first array row count and the second array column count form the number of rows and columns for the resulting matrix, the output will be a 2×2 array.

**Step 1: **First, select the target cell range B9:B10 and enter the function **MMULT **in Excel.

**=MMULT(B3:D4,G3:H5)**

**Step 2: **Next, press the **Ctrl** + **Shift** + **Enter **keys to execute the function **MMULT **in Excel as an array formula.

**{=MMULT(B3:D4,G3:H5)}**

#### Example #3

We can apply the function **MMULT **in Excel to count the number of rows in a cell range containing a specific value.

However, the given value may appear in more than one column. Thus, we can use the **MMULT() **with **COLUMN**, **TRANSPOSE**, and **SUM Excel function** to count such instances of the specific value as one and resolve the issue.

For example, the below table contains four arrays, **Array A**, **Array B**, **Array C**, and **Array D**.

Suppose we need to determine the number of rows in the above table containing the value **20** and display the result in cell E13. Then here is how we can achieve the required count using the function **MMULT **in Excel with the functions **SUM**, **TRANSPOSE**, and **COLUMN** in the target cell.

**Step 1: **To begin with, select the target cell E13, and enter the below formula.

**=SUM(–(MMULT(–(A2:D11=20),TRANSPOSE(COLUMN(A2:D11)))>0))**

**Step 2: **Next, press the **Ctrl** + **Shift** + **Enter** keys to execute the above formula as an array formula.

**{=SUM(–(MMULT(–(A2:D11=20),TRANSPOSE(COLUMN(A2:D11)))>0))}**

**Explanation**

- First, the term (A2:D11=20) shows the cells containing the value
**20**as**TRUE**and the remaining as**FALSE**. - Then the double negation operator converts the
**TRUE**and**FALSE**values into**1**and**0,**thus resulting in a 10×4 array. - Next, the
**COLUMN()**returns the column numbers in the range A2:D11, which the**TRANSPOSE()**changes into row numbers, thus giving a 4×1 array. - Next, the
**MMULT()**finds the product of the two 10×4 and 4×1 matrices, returning a 10×1 matrix**{3;1;0;7;0;2;0;1;2;0}**. And once these values get compared to**0**, the values greater than**0**become**TRUE**, and the remaining values become**FALSE**. - The double negation operator converts the
**TRUE**and**FALSE**values into**1**and**0**. - And finally, the
**SUM()**adds all the**1s**to return the value**6**, the number of rows containing the value of**20**.

**Please Note: **The value **20** appears twice in row 5. But the above formula counts it as only one occurrence, as the value is in the same row but more than one column.

### Important Things To Note

- We can apply the function
**MMULT**in Excel only when the two given arrays which we need to multiply contain numbers. - Ensure the number of columns in
**array1**and rows in**array2**is the same. - The arguments
**array1**and**array2**can be cell ranges, references, or array constants. - Suppose the supplied arrays contain blank cells or text values, or the number of columns in
**array1**and rows in**array2**are not the same. Then the**MMULT()**returns the**#VALUE!**error.

### Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

**1. How to multiply a 3×1 matrix with a 1×3 matrix using the MMULT function in Excel?**

You can multiply a 3×1 matrix with a 1×3 matrix using the **MMULT** function in Excel in the following way. Let us see the steps with an example.

The below image shows two arrays under Input Data.

While the first array is a 3×1 array, the second one is a 1×3 array. Thus, multiplying the two given arrays results in a 3×3 matrix.

And here is how the **MMULT** function can help you get the required matrix product in the target cell range B12:D14.**• Step 1: **First, select the target cell range B12:D14 and then, enter the **MMULT()** formula.**=MMULT(B6:B8,D6:F6)****• Step 2: **Next, press the **Ctrl** + **Shift** + **Enter** keys to execute the above formula as an array formula.**{=MMULT(B6:B8,D6:F6)}**

**2. How to apply the MMULT function in Excel VBA?**

You can apply the **MMULT** function in Excel VBA using the method:**Application.WorksheetFunction.MMult(array1,array2)**

The function arguments are the two input arrays you must multiply to get the matrix product.

**3. Why is the MMULT in Excel not working?**

The **MMULT **in Excel is not working, perhaps because of the following reasons:**• **The supplied arrays contain empty cells or text values.**• **The number of columns in **array1** does not equal the number of rows in **array2**.**• **The target cell range you choose to show the resulting matrix exceeds the required range.

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This article must be helpful to understand the **MMULT In Excel**, with its formula and examples. You can download the template here to use it instantly.

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